CHASSIS Construction Moulded carbon fibre and honeycomb composite structure to fully meet the FlA 1996 strength and impact regulations. Front Suspension Tyrrell Hydrolink Suspension System, developed with the assIstance of Fondmetal Technologies. Rear Suspension Separate spring and damper units operated by push rods and rockers, mechanical anti-mu bar. Dampers Koni Wheels Fondmetal cast magnesium. Front 4-spoke, 11.0 in wide. Rear 5-spoke, 13.7 in wide Tyres Goodyear Brakes AP Racing I Front 2 x 6 piston calipers Rear 2 x 4 pIston calipers Brake Discs & Pads Hitco carbon Pipe Systems Titeflex Steering Tyrrell rack and pinion Steering Wheel Personal Driver's Seat Anatomically formed carbon composite Seat Belts Willans 6-point harness (75 mm wide shoulder straps) Extinguisher Tyrrell carbon fibre moulded tank to FIA 1995 specification, pressure filled with Spraylance AFFF extinguishant. Fuel Tank ATL Kevlar bladder to FlA FT5 specification Battery Tyrrell 12v 5Ah lead acid Instrumentation Pi Research System V, Integrated digital dataThe following is a transcript of the technical presentation given by Dr Harvey Postlethwaite Managing Director-Technical, Tyrrell Racing Organisation on February 13th - London, England.
The new Formula 1 regulations have had a fundamental effect on the path we have taken in creating the Tyrrell 023 - our challenger for what is surely going to be a new era in Grand Prix racing.
Previously, technical regulations were changed only with two years notice, so the design of cars evolved quite slowly, which meant there was a great deal of emphasis on detail change. Last year, the regulation changes came thick and fast and we had to mod ify our 1994 cars while simultaneously beginning work on our 1995 model - the Tyrrell 023. Not only have we had to work quickly, but the regulation changes themselves have pushed designers into a corner and the scope for innovation is tighter than ever.
From the design point of view the 1995 regulations present a refreshing challenge. Creating a racing car is a team effort covering a host of often conflicting design areas. As the person directing that team, I've got to channel our resources into the righ t areas. This year the balance of importance between those areas has shifted significantly.
Back in 1989, aerodynamics were the top priority of the Tyrrell 018 design and some things were inevitably compromised in order to perfect that key area of design. Now, six years later, on the 023 design there are many other areas which are just as import ant as aerodynamics - not least the structural safety requirement introduced by the FIA's 1995 regulations.
Tyrrell was the first British team to successfully complete all stages of the FIA crash test programme and we have taken the safety aspects of the 023 design extremely seriously. We devised the novel approach of treating the entire radiator inlet pod as a n integral part of the monocoque, giving us the deepest possible structure to provide the greatest possible impact absorbtion.
The FIA's safety regulations have been increasingly effective since the introduction of the current 'modern' regulations which don't tell you how to design your car, but do tell you what safety criteria you must meet. We have seen huge strides forward in the safety of Formula 1 cars - interrupted tragically by what happened at Imola. Nevertheless, the cars have got stronger and safer. The 023 monocoques that we are making for the 1995 season are very strong indeed. They are also quite heavy. Since the 018 , monocoque tubs have put on between 10 and 15 kgs in weight.
The new aerodynamic regulations are very limiting in terms of pure generation of downforce. Over the last year - in general terms - the regulation changes have cut the maximum availablw downforce by more than 30%. Put very simply, if you take a fast corne r as example, in which a 1994 car generated sufficient downforce to go round at 3g, a 1995 car is going to corner at 2.6g.
Tyrrell has long been a leader in the area of aerodynamics. The team's trend-setting 019 car of 1990, pioneered the much-copied high nose and anhedral front wings. The 022 car's rear winglets, introduced at Monaco last year, were widely imitated by other teams whenever the Formula 1 circus went to a 'slow' circuit.
This season, the need to exploit every last bit airflow to generate downforce will see most cars - including our new 023 - running with winglets from day one. Throughout 1995, Tyrrell intends to maintain its leading edge in aerodynamics. Over the last eig ht years we have developed some of the very sophisticated techniques for setting up the car. We pioneered aero-mapping, which is now a commonly used tool. But sophistication in aerodynamics won't pay such big dividends as it did before and that brings us to other facets of design.
Here, in the search for mechanical grip, I think Tyrrell has a major plus. We spent a long time thinking about the kind of car we were going to have to build for these regulations. Where the engine, driver and fuel were going to have to be located for the 'best' performance. What the wheelbase needed to be, and where the weight should be distributed. So, I hope we've got our sums correct, our decisions right. As a curiosity for the technically minded the 1995 Formula 1 cars will have the lowest polar mome nt of enertia of any Formula 1 cars ever built.
Because the driver sits further back - the new regulations fix both the position of the steering wheel in relation to the car's front wheels and dictate the size of the cockpit opening - driver's feet are now well back from the front wheel centre line.
Personally, I like re-fuelling. It brings an extra dimension to each Grand Prix and seeing different team tactics being played out during a race, adds quite a lot to the sport. The FIA has listened to team engineers and the re-fuelling rigs supplied to ea ch team for 1995 will incorporate a number of improvements to enhance safety.
However, we decided to retain our six-speed transversal gearbox, knowing that we could incorporate the unit into our aerodynamic package rather well. We have actually achieved some aerodynamic advantages compared to a longitudinal box. We've put an extra 'drop' gear in the box in order to raise it, giving a cascade of gears to give us the best possible aerodynamic shape under the rear of the car.
The unique air-powered pneumatic gear selection system for the sequential box, which we introduced last year in conjunction with Yamaha, is also retained. It incorporates further improvements developed over the winter and has been highly praised by our dr ivers whilst testing during last month's sessions.
Getting the car off the corner is going to be the key, especially at some circuits where traction will be absolutely fundamental to the overall performance - even with 650 rather than 750 bhp.
In 1994, we ran with a novel type of differential that's now widely used - with a viscous type coupling. We will have to see if the characteristics of this type of diff are suited to our 023 car. It may be that we will have to go another route and differe ntial development is an area we are concentrating on. Last year, we may have had an extra design engineer or two on wind-tunnel work, now they are on differential work and suspension design.
A great deal of time was devoted to conceiving, designing, engineering and producing our new 'Hydrolink' Suspension System developed with the assistance of Fondmetal Technologies. It will be quite important to us in terms of getting the very best out of o ur 023 car. It's not something that's instantly worth a second a lap, but in the months ahead it will have highly positive benefits it will help us get the very best out of our chassis.
At this time, the details of the system must remain secret. However, the key benefit is to be able to control both the roll and the bump characteristics of the suspension - without compromising each other.
We started with some carefully considered long-term goals for the Hydrolink System programme - and those are looking even more encouraging now after track tests in Britain and Europe, than they did at the beginning. I think Tyrrell's future F1 cars might look quite different because of this innovation.
Despite the reduction in aerodynamic downforce, top speeds of these cars won't be higher - they only have 3-litre engines. In *very* round terms, cars will be 15kph slower on the straight, and two seconds per lap slower - at the start of the season. These cars are not going to be any easier on their tyres - the may actually be worse than last year's machines.
Because of the new-for-1995 cars, I think Formula 1 will undergo a renaissance. They will provide better racing and the field will close up even more. I consider that the overall effect will be to favour the driver in the three-way equation - driver/chass is/engine.
Looking at the broader picture, the restricting of computer-dependant high-tech and the tighter control of aerodynamics seem to have a levelling effect across the Formula 1 field. Massive budgets are no longer a pre-requisite for success and that is certa inly a good thing. Now, rather than just spending money, designers have got to be creative and ingenious.
I really believe that we are going to see some changes over the next years - things are gradually going to move around in Formula 1. The established 'Top 4 plus the rest' situation is going to change. I sincerely believe that the 1995 regulations will hav e played a significant role of this revival.
Finally, a word of caution. If you are so minded, you can enhance the car's traction so easily by cheating, so I hope that in 1995 the FIA will be as tough as they said they were going to be in 1994.
Due to the short time period between last year's new regulation announcement and the start of this year's season, Yamaha have made use of their existing technology in the field of high-performance engine development and production with a priority on creat ing an engine with outstanding reliability.
In order to keep the loss in power output, due to the reduced displacement, to an absolute minimum, Yamaha have taken last year's engine, the Yamaha OX1OB, as a base and further reduced the weight of moving parts like the pistons, connecting rods and cran k assembly, to achieve higher rpm and thus maximise the power output. Redesigning components like the oil pump and water pump has also contributed to a decrease in power loss.
This year, competitiveness on the race track will depend more on the overall quality of the engine and chassis as a unified package than in previous years. In comparison to many of the newly formed teams who will compete in this year's championship, Tyrre ll Yamaha has an advantage as they have now been working together for three years. This has meant a smooth transition in such areas as accommodating the new engine and control systems to the requirements of the newly developed chassis, and the whole team is working together to ensure the optimal match of engine and chassis qualities that will guarantee a fast, competitive machine.
Yamaha have taken such measures as further reducing friction in the OX1OC engine parts, and modifying the location of the injector, all with the aim of designing an engine that runs efficiently on less fuel.
As for measures aimed at achieving a higher level of engine reliability, Yamaha have set more meticulous and specified standards in the various aspects of the reliability control system.
Tests began on the new 3-litre engine incorporating all of the latest technologies in December and it has produced excellent results. Track testing of the OX1OC engine mounted in the new Tyrrell 023 chassis is planned to begin at Silverstone in mid-Februa ry.
The development of the new Yamaha OX1OC 3-litre engine has been carried out as a joint project of Yamaha Motor Co. and Britain's Engine Developments Limited.
MAIN SPECIFICATIONS; YAMAHA OX1OC Cylinder configuration 72 Degree V10 Displacement 2,996 cc Rower Output Over 650 bhp Valve Mechanism DOHC Direct lifter type gear-driven cams Fuel Supply System Zytek Ignition System Zytek Dry Weight Less than 125 kg Dimensions: Length 625 mm Width 555 mm Height 417 mm